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Welcome to Model Structures for Model Railroads

Oil Refinery Structures Page 2

All the structures you need to have a refinery complex.  Please note while concrete bases are shown in some photos they are not  included in the structure's base price. Please ask for a quote on a base  if desired. 

Shop for Oil Refinery Structures

Go to our Oil Refinery Structures 1  web page to see additional product

Web page Oil Refinery Structures 1

Atmospheric Distillation Tower - Medium

 The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these  components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation.  An Atmospheric distillation tower distills crude oil into fractions. The collected liquid fractions may either pass to condensers, which cool  them further, and then go to storage tanks or go to other areas for further chemical processing. There are usually heavy residue left over after atmospheric distillation. These residues are sent to a Vacuum  distillation tower which further distills the 'residual bottoms' for  more product. Model Structures offers four distillation tower models - three atmospheric  and one vacuum model. All towers have one inlet pipe at ground level. 

The Medium  Atmospheric Distillation Tower is about 14 inches high with a 1 1/2 inch  diameter. It has three platforms and five pipes. 

The standard design has all piping ending at the bottom of the tower. The design of the distillation towers have been improved. There are now more platforms / piping etc and a more realistic look. 

Custom routing of piping is available for multiple product

Atmospheric Distillation Tower - Small

The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can  be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation. An Atmospheric distillation tower distills crude oil into fractions. The  collected liquid fractions may either pass to condensers, which cool them further, and then go to storage tanks or go to other areas for further chemical processing. There are usually heavy residue left over after atmospheric distillation. These residues are sent to a Vacuum distillation tower which further distills the 'residual bottoms' for more product. 

The Small Distillation Tower is usually located after hydro-cracking or treatment units to further refine product before being sent on to  storage. The tower measures 13 inches x 1 ¼ inch diameter with two  outlet pipes. 

Model Structures  offers four distillation tower models - three atmospheric and one vacuum  model. All towers have one inlet pipe at ground level. 

The standard design has all piping ending at the bottom of the tower. The design of the distillation towers have been improved. There are now more platforms / piping etc and a more realistic look. 

Custom routing of piping is available for multiple product purchase. 

Vacuum Distillation Tower

The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation. An Atmospheric distillation tower distills crude oil into fractions. The collected liquid fractions may either pass to condensers, which cool  them further, and then go to storage tanks or go to other areas for  further chemical processing. There are usually heavy residue left over after atmospheric distillation. These residues are sent to a Vacuum  distillation tower which further distills the 'residual bottoms' for  more product. Model Structures offers four distillation tower models -  three atmospheric and one vacuum model. All towers now use the larger  1/4 OD piping in all locations. All towers have one inlet pipe at ground  level. 

The Vacuum Distillation Tower is about 19 inches high with a 2 inch diameter. It has two platforms and four pipes.

The  standard design has all piping ending at the bottom of the tower. The  design of the distillation towers have been improved. There are now more  platforms / piping etc and a more realistic look. 

Custom routing of piping is available for multiple product purchase. 

Reboiler

Reboilers are heat exchangers typically used to provide heat to the bottom of industrial distillation columns. They boil the liquid residuum from the bottom of a distillation column to generate vapors which are returned to the column to drive the distillation separation. The  reboiler receives a liquid stream from the column bottom and may  partially or completely vaporize that stream. Steam usually provides the  heat required for the vaporization. Liquid residuum is pumped into the  bottom of the Reboiler heated with steam with the end product a mixture  of vapor and liquid sent to the next distillation tower for processing. Condensate (water from the steam process) is vented at the bottom of the tank. Model Structures' Reboiler comes standard with large input piping for steam and output piping for liquid and vapor to be sent to the next distillation tower. Input piping for liquid residuum from the previous  Distillation Tower plus a smaller vent for water condensate are located on the bottom of the tank. The Reboiler comes standard with a brown  tank, red oxide piping for steam, brown piping for both input and output  liquids. Overall footprint for the Reboiler is 6 x 6 inches. Concrete base is not included. 

Alkylation Unit

An alternate method to squeeze even more out of crude oil is the use of Alkylation (Alky) Units to combine olefins (propylene and butylene) from the Fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) with isobutane and a sulfuric acid  catalyst. It’s mixed vigorously before the sulfuric acid is again removed. What’s left is pumped to distillation towers, where it’s separated into liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), mixed butanes and alkylate. Alkylate is a high-octane blending component used in lead-free premium gasoline. 

Catalytic-Cracking Unit

Fluid catalytic  cracking (FCC) is the most important conversion process used in petroleum refineries. It is widely used to convert high-boiling, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils to more valuable gasoline, olefinic gases and other products. The FCC designed by Model Structures for Model RR's is a 2-stage Hydro-cracker that uses two reactors. Input (feedstock) for the first reactor is high  boiling point atmospheric gas oil from atmospheric crude oil  distillation units or vacuum gas oil from vacuum distillation units simply referred to as gas oil. The gas oil is pumped from an upstream Distillation Tower and is mixed with hydrogen catalyst from the catalyst re-generator and pumped into the reactor where the cracking process takes place. Cracked hydrocarbons are released from the top of the tank and sent to a down-line Distillation tower where gasoline and other gas oils are created. Spent catalyst is sent back to the catalyst  re-generator from the bottom of the reactor. Waste product and gas are  sent from the top of the catalyst re-generator to a Flare Tower for disposal. The Model Structures design contains a 3-inch diameter reactor and a 2 ½ inch diameter catalyst re-generator. Piping for catalyst recovery is supplied at the bottom of the tanks. Output piping from the  top of the reactor to a downstream distillation tower along with piping  from the top of the catalyst re-generator for waste removal is included. Input piping from an upstream distillation tower and between the catalyst re-generator and reactor are also supplied. The catalyst  re-generator and waste removal piping are painted red oxide. Overall  footprint for the structure is approximately 10 x 7 x 15(h) inches.  

Hydro-Cracking Reactor

The Hydro Cracking reactor (structure in red) is usually associated with a distillation tower. Hydro cracking is a catalytic cracking process assisted by the presence of added hydrogen gas. Feed stock is usually high-boiling point, high molecular weight hydrocarbons such as gas oil  from upstream distillation towers. Heat and hydrogen are used to 'crack' the high molecular weight hydrocarbons into lighter fractions. The product is then sent to a distillation tower by way of a separator (not yet designed) that separates the hydrogen from the product and sends it back to the reactor. The chief products from the distillation process are jet fuel, diesel and kerosene 

Flare Tower with Fan Housing

The Flare tower is designed with an enclosed fan housing structure  attached to it. There is a ladder allowing access to the top of the  boiler then partially up the smoke stack. The smoke stack is a three-stage tower starting at 1 inch diameter and ending at 5/8 " diameter. Overall foot print is 2 x 6 x 16(H) inches. Not shown is an inlet pipe attached above the housing structure. A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack or tower is used to eliminate waste gas which is otherwise not feasible to use or transport. They also act as safety systems for non-waste gas and is released via pressure relief valve when needed to ease the strain on equipment and protect gas  processing equipment from being over-pressured. Its primary purpose is  to act as a safety device to protect vessels or pipes from  over-pressuring due to unplanned upsets. Whenever plant equipment items are over-pressured, the pressure relief valves on the equipment  automatically release gases (and sometimes liquids as well) which are routed through large piping runs called flare headers to the flare  stacks. The released gases and/or liquids are burned as they exit the flare stacks 

Tanker Car Fuel Loading Platform

The  fuel loading platform is designed as a pass through structure. It measures roughly 26 x 8 x7(h). The platform is a bi-level structure with maintenance level about 2 1/2 inches high. A stairway connects the maintenance level with the top level walkway. There is a set of three pipes that runs the length of the platform. The piping can be made independent of each other, all connected or any combination desired. Normal pipe ending on the input side will be to ground unless otherwise specified. There are three gate valves one for each pipe. Each gate valve has a down spout connected to it.
This  platform would work well either connected to a pipe distribution network as shown or to any of the various storage tanks we offer.