All the structures you need to have a refinery complex. Please note while concrete bases are shown in some photos they are not included in the structure's base price. Please ask for a quote on a base if desired.
The Oil Refinery structures are our most popular product line to date. The photos below show some customer layouts.
The typical oil/petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant with many different structures designed to receive crude oil , processes and refine it into petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically very large complexes with extensive piping running throughout, connecting the various chemical processing units. To model a complete refinery would take up a lot of space on a layout. So Model Structures has designed various stand alone structures that can be purchased separately. This way you can choose and fit the structures you like for your layout. While all standard product is designed for underground piping Model Structures will be happy to design for an additional cost the necessary above ground piping using our pipe stands to connect all purchased product. If you prefer we will also design and build complete refinery complexes based on your instructions.
The Model Structures Oil Refinery consists of the following custom built structures:
To aid in the selection of structures for your refinery feel free to open the link to the PDF file “How Oil Refineries are Set Up” (Updated 02/16/2017) which gives basic in formation on how refineries operate and what structures are typically present.
Also available is a process flow map to give you an idea where each structure is placed.
Fuel Pumps can be added to the Maintenance Platform to add some action to the railroad track-side structure! The fuel pump consists of rounded pump tank, a rectangular pump electrical housing and a hose assembly that swivels. The pump measure approximately 3/4 inch (W) x 1 3/4 inch (L) x 2 3/4 inch (H). The standard color is dull nickel. Other colors are available - just ask! The O Scale pump has been redesigned. There is now an electrical conduit box on the backside of the pump electrical housing. The pump swivel has been redesigned to rotate at two points.
Heat Exchangers or Condensers in conjunction with Accumulators (Reflux Drums) are typically found connected to the top product piping of distillation (fractionating) towers. The product first flows through a set of heat exchangers for cooling then through an accumulator or reflux drum to hold the condensed vapor from the top of the column so that liquid (reflux) can be recycled back to the column or product moved upstream for further processing. For final product filters are added to remove any remaining residue.
The refinery’s first job is to remove water and salt from the crude oil. These contaminants are of no use to the refinery. Raw crude oil is pumped from storage tanks to the desalting tank where the process takes place. Salt is dissolved in the water in the crude oil, not in the crude oil itself and since water does not mix with crude oil the process is fairly simple to perform. Model Structures Desalting tank is 7 inches long and 2 ½ inches in diameter. There is a single inlet pipe for crude oil going to the top of the tank and an outlet at the bottom for desalted crude to use as feed-stock for the crude oil furnace. A smaller blue pipe exiting the bottom of the tank carries waste water (brine) to be disposed of. The green piping is for waste gas that is sent for further processing. The small yellow pipe is for sand. A power transformer sits on top of the tank.
Depending on the product specifications, one, two, or three stages of desalting may be required to satisfy the process design requirements. This two-stage desalting system design has dilution water recycling capability. Fresh water is injected upstream of the 2nd stage. The water removed from the 2nd stage is pumped back to the 1st stage to extract the salt in the crude inlet of the 1st desalter. The addition of this recycle reduces the dilution water requirement compared to a single-stage dehydrator and desalter system.
The crude oil furnace is usually set between a desalting tank and the first distillation tower. The purpose of this furnace is to heat desalted crude oil to about 400-600C to prepare it for delivery to the distillation process. Smaller versions of this furnace can also be seen downstream in the refinery process to heat treated oil for other processing such as hydro-cracking, alkylation, further distillation etc. The crude oil furnace stands about 18 inches tall and has an approximate 5 x 5 inch footprint. There are two smaller pipes beneath the structure for delivery of air and gas for heating. Crude oil enters the furnace from the top convection unit and flows down and exits from the lower portion of the radiant heater box. There is a maintenance platform on the main radiant furnace box with a secondary platform leading to the stack. This secondary platform will also act as a crosswalk to connect to another furnace if desired.
The crude oil furnace is usually set between a desalting tank and the first distillation tower. The purpose of this furnace is to heat desalted crude oil to about 400-600C to prepare it for delivery to the distillation process. Smaller versions of this furnace can also be seen downstream in the refinery process to heat treated oil for other processing such as hydro-cracking, alkylation, further distillation etc. The crude oil furnace stands about 19 inches tall and has an approximate 5 x 5 inch footprint. Crude oil enters the furnace from the top convection unit and flows down and exits from underneath the platform. There is one small pipe for delivery of gas to heat the furnace. There is a maintenance platform on the main radiant furnace box with a secondary platform leading to the stack. This secondary platform will also act as a crosswalk to connect to another furnace if desired.
The various components of crude oil have different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation. An Atmospheric distillation tower distills crude oil into fractions. The collected liquid fractions may either pass to condensers, which cool them further, and then go to storage tanks or go to other areas for further chemical processing. There are usually heavy residue left over after atmospheric distillation. These residues are sent to a Vacuum distillation tower which further distills the 'residual bottoms' for more product. Model Structures offers four distillation tower models - three atmospheric and one vacuum model. All towers have one inlet pipe at ground level.
The Large Atmospheric Distillation Tower is about 17 inches high with a 2 1/2 inch diameter. It has three platforms and five pipes.
The standard design has all piping ending at the bottom of the tower. The design of the distillation towers have been improved. There are now more platforms / piping etc and a more realistic look.
Custom routing of piping is available for multiple product purchase.